Solinas, C. Li, T. Strategy to Prevent Inflammatory Responses and Insulin Resistance in Obese Adipose Tissues by Food Components Inflammatory responses in obese adipose tissues are regulated by many transcriptional factors.
Auraptene a monoterpene derivativea citrus fruit compound contained mainly in the peel, is also a PPAR dual agonist [ 4243 ].
Coculture system of adipocytes and macrophages for the screening for anti-inflammatory food components. This indicates that obesity-related pathologies can be prevented or improved by the intake of food containing components that can control inflammation in obese adipose tissues infiltrated with macrophages.
However, unlike luteolin, naringenin chalcone and naringenin partly inhibit the degradation of I- B- [ 12 ] and suppress the macrophage infiltration to hypertrophied adipocytes Hirai et al.
Currently, two different molecular mechanisms have been proposed by which the anti-inflammatory actions of PPAR are in effect: Nishida et al. To evaluate the characteristics of food components that prevent obesity-induced inflammatory responses, we used the coculture system of adipocytes and macrophages, which is an in vitro model of obese adipose tissue infiltrated by macrophages Figure 3.
The major cause of the development of obesity and the consequent inflammatory disorders is the excess dietary fat intake or an imbalance between the intake and expenditure of energy.
Thus, food components with PPAR agonistic activities may also contribute to the improvement of obesity-induced inflammation via adipose tissue remodeling associated with the phenotype switch of macrophages. The study found that the proportion of DHA n-3 PUFA widely held to be the most important of the n-3 PUFA decreased in the serum of metabolic syndrome individuals and is negatively correlated to body weight.
Maeda, I. Pedersen, and B. Chinetti, J. The development of vicious cycle of inflammation between adipocytes and macrophages in obese adipose tissue.
In this review, we introduce the beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory food components against obesity-induced inflammatory responses and pathologies. Capsaicin, a spicy ingredient of hot peppers, has not only metabolic properties to induce thermogenesis and fat oxidation [ 2628 ] but also anti-inflammatory properties [ 31 ].
Luteolin, a flavone that is present in medicinal plants and in some vegetables and spices, has been reported to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiallergy functions [ 45 ].
Furthermore, PPARa member of the nuclear receptor superfamily activated by ligands, also plays an important role in inflammation [ 1819 ].
Willson, C. Tanimoto-Koyama, J. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Kwon, and T. In addition to the anti-inflammatory effect, TZDs regulate the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in macrophages and suppress their transformation into foam cells [ 720 ].
Waki et al. In our coculture system, diosgenin also inhibited the inflammatory changes via the downregulation of I- B- degradation and JNK activation [ 53 ], which is independent of PPAR activation Uemura et al. These flavonoids have been reported to have antiviral, antiallergic, antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant activities, and recently, they have attracted considerable interest because of their potential beneficial effects on obesity and metabolic syndromes.
Rhee, and D. Moreover, capsaicin suppresses not only macrophage migration induced in an adipose-tissue-conditioned medium but also its activation to release proinflammatory mediators.
Kishida et al. Figure 1: Yang et al. Kamon, H. As in the case of luteolin, naringenin chalcone also suppresses the production of inflammatory mediators induced by the coculture of adipocytes and macrophages [ 12 ].
In particular, a combination of compounds exhibiting different mechanisms by which anti-inflammatory effects are exerted seems to be most efficient.
References G. It has been found that immune cells such as macrophages can infiltrate adipose tissue and are responsible for the majority of inflammatory cytokine production.
Lihn, S. These three flavonoids do not serve as agonists of PPAR in the luciferase reporter assay Hirai et al. Suganami, K. On the other hand, our daily intake of spices and herbs are still limited. Ferrante Jr.Functional Food: Definition und vermutete Wirkungen Der Name „funktionelle Lebensmittel“, auf Englisch „Functional Food“, ist Ihnen bestimmt schon im Supermarkt, beim Bäcker oder Metzger und in den Medien begegnet.
Considering the importance of dietary interventions, the present review highlights the role, significance and potential of functional food ingredients for the management of obesity and associated co Cited by: Biomarkers and functional foods for obesity and diabetes - Volume 88 Issue S2 - James O.
Der Begriff ist insgesamt sehr schwammig, es gibt zwar eine Definition, aber die Bandbreite, welche Produkte und Lebensmittel in den Bereich der Funktionellen Lebensmittel fallen, ist. Als "Functional Food" werden solche normalen Lebensmittel wie Brot, Joghurt, Saft und Milch bezeichnet, die zusätzlich noch mit einer "funktionellen" Zutat angereichert werden.